A Geographic Information System (GIS) is a software framework that incorporates geographical features with other datasets in order to map, analyze, and assess real-world geospatial problems.
The geographic aspect of GIS is key – it means that some portion of the data that is being analyzed within a GIS is geospatial. In other words, it involves data that is in reference to locations on the earth. In addition, this geospatial data is usually enriched with what is referred to as attribute data. Attribute data can be generally defined as additional information about each of the spatial features. An example of this would be the actual location of a retailer (the spatial data) enriched with attribute data such as the retailer’s name, brand of retailer, and the type of retail property.